P1-Race walking

Race walking shares many fitness benefits with running, research shows, while most likely contributing to fewer injuries. It does, however, have its own problem.


Race walkers are conditioned athletes. The longest track and field event at the Summer Olympics is the 50-kilometer race walk, which is about five miles longer than the marathon. But the sport’s rules require that a race walker’s knees stay straight through most of the leg swing and one foot remain in contact with the ground at all times. It’s this strange form that makes race walking such an attractive activity, however, says Jaclyn Norberg, an assistant professor of exercise science at Salem State University in Salem, Mass.


Like running, race walking is physically demanding, she says, According to most calculations, race walkers moving at a pace of six miles per hour would burn about 800 calories per hour, which is approximately twice as many as they would burn walking, although fewer than running, which would probably burn about 1,000 or more calories per hour.


However, race walking does not pound the body as much as running does, Dr. Norberg says. According to her research, runners hit the ground with as much as four times their body weight per step, while race walkers, who do not leave the ground, create only about 1.4 times their body weight with each step.

As a result, she says, some of the injuries associated with running, such as runner’s knee, are uncommon among race walkers. But the sport’s strange form does place considerable stress on the ankles and hips, so people with a history of such injuries might want to be cautious in adopting the sport. In fact, anyone wishing to try race walking should probably first consult a coach or experienced racer to learn proper technique, she says. It takes some practice.

继续阅读P1-Race walking

The Farmer and the Nightingale(夜莺)

A farmer lay listening to a nightingale(夜莺)’s song throughout(在整个期间) one summer night.

He was so pleased with it that the next night he set a trap(陷阱) for it and caught it.

“Now I have caught you,” he cried, “and you will always sing to me.”

“We nightingales(夜莺) never sing in a cage(笼子),” said the bird.

“Then I’ll eat you,” said the farmer.

“I have always heard that a nightingale(夜莺) on toast(吐司) is delicious.”

“No, don’t kill me,” said the nightingale(夜莺); “but set me free, and I’ll tell you three things worth much more than my poor body.”

The farmer let him loose, and he flew up to a branch(树枝) of a tree and said, “Never believe a prisoner(囚犯)’s promise; that’s one thing. Then again: keep what you have. And third piece of advice is: do not waste your sadness on what is lost forever(永远).”

Then the song-bird flew away.

MORAL: If you love someone, set them free.

The Farmer and the Goats(山羊)

It was a stormy day, and the snow was falling fast.

A farmer led his goats(山羊), all white with snow, into a cave(洞穴) for shelter(避难).

There, he found a group of wild goats(山羊), more in number and larger than his own.

At the end of the day he drove both the wild goats(山羊) and his own goats(山羊) home and put them all into the pen(羊圈) together.

Next day the weather was so bad that he could not take them out as usual: so he kept them at home in the farmyard(农场), and fed(喂养) them there.

He only gave his own goats(山羊) enough food to keep them from(避免) starving(挨饿), but he gave the wild goats(山羊) as much as they could eat and more; for he was very anxious(渴望的) for them to stay, and he thought that if he fed(喂养) them well they wouldn’t want to leave him.

When the weather got better, he took them all out to fields again; but when they got near the hills, the wild goats(山羊) ran off.

The farmer was very angry at this, and said, “How can you run away like that after the way I’ve treated you!”

Hearing this, one of them turned round and said, “Oh, yes, you treated us all right–too well, in fact; it was just that fact that got us thinking. If you treat newcomers like ourselves so much better than your own goats(山羊), it’s more than likely that, if another lot of strange goats(山羊) joined yours, you would probably give them our food and we would go hungry.”

MORAL: They who ignore(忽视) their old friends for new ones deserve(应受) to lose both.

The Farmer and the Fox(狐狸)

A farmer was greatly annoyed(被激怒) by a fox(狐狸), which came into his yard at night and carried off his chickens.

So he set a trap(陷阱) for him and caught him; and in order to get revenge(报复) upon the fox(狐狸), the farmer tied a bunch of(一扎) cloth(布料) to his tail, set fire to(点燃) it and let him go.

As ill-luck would have it, however, the fox(狐狸) made straight for(一直向..走去) the fields where the corn was standing ripe(成熟的) and ready for cutting.

The corn quickly caught fire(着火) and was all burnt up(烧光), and the farmer lost all his harvest(收成).

MORAL: Revenge(报复) is a two-edged sword(剑).

The Farmer and the Donkey(驴)

An old farmer was sitting in a field watching his donkey(驴), when all of a sudden he caught sight of(看见) some soldiers(士兵) moving towards them.

He jumped up in a moment, and asked the donkey(驴) to escape(逃跑) with him as fast as he could, “Or else,” said he, “we shall both be captured(被俘虏) by the enemy.”

But the donkey(驴) just looked round lazily and said, “And if so, do you think they’ll make me carry heavier loads(负载物) than I have to now?”

“No,” said his master(主人). “Oh, well, then,” said the donkey(驴), “I don’t mind if they do take me, for I shan’t be any worse off.”

MORAL: The poor may not fear a change of masters(主人) in the way that the rich do.

The Farmer and the Dogs

During a cold winter, a farmer was trapped(被困) in his house by the snow.

As he could not get any food from outside, he began eating his won sheep.

As the cold weather continued, he began to eat his goats(山羊).

And finally–for there was no change in the cold weather–he ate the oxen(阉牛) who worked on the farm.

Then the dogs said to one another, “We should leave at once, If the master(主人) eats even the oxen(阉牛), who do all the work around here, do you think he won’t eat us?”

MORAL: Learn from the misfortunes(不幸) of others, not just from your own.

The Farmer and His Sons

A farmer, being at death’s door, and wanting to tell his sons an important secret, called them round him and said, “My sons, I am shortly about to die; I would have you know, therefore, that in my farm there lies a hidden treasure. Dig, and you will find it.”

As soon as their father was dead, the sons took their farming tools and dug up(挖掘) the soil of the farm over and over again, in their search for the treasure which they believed was there.

They found no treasure, but the farm, after so much digging, produced a magnificent(极好的) crop(收成).

MORAL: Hard work is the key to prosperity(富足).

The Eagle(鹰) and the Crow(乌鸦)

An eagle(鹰), flying down from a high rock, grabbed(抓住) a lamb(羔羊) and carried him up into the sky in his claws(爪子).

A crow(乌鸦), who saw this, was envious(嫉妒的) of the strength and flight(飞翔) of the eagle(鹰).

He flew around and landed on a large sheep, hoping to carry him off as the eagle(鹰) had done.

However, his claws(爪子) became stuck in the sheep’s wool(羊毛) and he couldn’t let go, although he flapped(扑动) his wings as much as he could.

A farmer, seeing what had happened, ran up and caught him.

He cut the crow(乌鸦)’s wings and took him home for his children.

When they said, “Father, what kind of bird is it?” he replied, “We all know he is a crow(乌鸦), but he would like you to think of him as an eagle(鹰).”

MORAL: Sometimes ambition(野心) can lead us beyond the limits(极限) of our power.

An Envious(嫉妒的) Man

A poor man was always complaining(抱怨) that he did not have enough good things, and his neighbor had more, even though his neighbor did not deserve(应得) them.

One day he prayed(祈祷) to God to make him rich.

God answered his prayer(祷告) and spoke to him, saying, “Ask for as much as you want, and I will give it to you –but remember, I will also give your neighbor twice as much.”

To test what God had said, the poor man asked for a large sum(一笔款项) of money, which he received–but he also saw that his neighbor received twice as much.

He became so angry that he asked God to make him blind in one eye, so that he could have the pleasure of seeing his neighbor become totally blind.

MORAL: If you want to be happy, don’t compare yourself with others.

The Dove(鸽子) and the Crow(乌鸦)

A dove(鸽子) was locked in a cage(笼子) and told everyone about how many children she had.

A crow(乌鸦) heard this and said, “The larger your family, the more sadness you have, since you are in this cage(笼子) and they are not.”

MORAL: To enjoy what we have, we must have freedom.

The Dove(鸽子) and the Ant

An ant went to the bank of a river to drink, and fell into the water.

Being carried away by the fast water, he was close to dying.

A dove(鸽子), sitting on a tree above the water, dropped a leaf into the river close to him.

The ant, climbing on to it, got to the bank safely.

Shortly afterwards, a bird catcher came close and stood under the tree, and started making a trap(陷阱) for the dove(鸽子).

The ant, seeing this, stung(叮) him in the foot.

He suddenly threw down the trap(陷阱), and the dove(鸽子) flew away.

MORAL: Thankful people will always find a way to show their thanks.

The Donkey(驴), the Rooster(公鸡), and the Lion

A donkey(驴) and a rooster(公鸡) were together, when a hungry lion came towards them.

He was about to attack the donkey(驴), when the rooster(公鸡) (whose voice, it is said, scares(使害怕) lions) crowed(啼叫) loudly, and the lion fled away(逃跑).

The donkey(率), seeing this, got some courage to attack the lion, and ran after him.

He hadn’t run far when the lion turned around, grabbed(抓住) him and ate him.

MORAL: False(错误的) confidence(信心) often leads to danger.

The Donkey(驴), the Fox(狐狸), and the Lion

A donkey(驴) and a fox(狐狸) went out into the forest together.

They had not gone far when they met a lion.

The fox(狐狸) said to the lion that he would help the lion catch the donkey(驴) if the lion did’t eat him.

After the lion had agreed, the fox(狐狸) tricked(欺骗) the donkey(驴) so that it fell into a deep hole.

When the lion saw this, he ate the fox(狐狸) at once, and left the donkey(驴) to be eaten later.

MORAL: Cheaters(骗子) must expect to be cheated(被欺骗).

The Donkey(驴) in the Lion’s Skin

A donkey(驴) put on a lion’s skin to scare(吓唬) all the animals he met in the forest.

Then he went about frightening(吓唬) every one he met, for they all thought he was a lion, and ran away when they saw him coming.

Happy with the success of his trick(诡计), he loudly brayed(嘶叫) in triumph(得意洋洋地).

At last, meeting a fox(狐狸), he tried to frighten(吓唬) him too.

But when the fox(狐狸) heard the sound of his voice, he said, “I might have been frightened(害怕的) too, if I had not heard your voice.”

MORAL: Don’t take your pretending(伪装) too far, or you’ll be found out.

The Donkey(驴) and the Statue(雕像)

A donkey(驴) was pulling a cart(马车) with a religious(宗教的) statue(雕像) in it, and all the people bowed(鞠躬) in deep respect as the status(雕像) passed them.

The donkey(驴), who thought that they were showing their respect for him, became very proud and refused to take another step.

But the driver just hit him with his stick and said, “Stupid donkey(驴)! It is not you they respect, but the statue(雕像) you’re carrying.”

MORAL: Only fools(傻瓜) try to take the credit(赞扬) which others deserve(应得).

The Donkey(驴) and the Dog

A man had a donkey(驴) and a very beautiful dog.

The donkey(驴) lived outside the house, but had plenty to eat.

The dog was his master(主人)’s favorite, and often played with him.

The donkey(驴) worked hard on the farm, carrying wood from the forest.

He often compared his life with that of the dog, who lived an easy life in the house with his master(主人).

One day he ran into the house.

He tried to jump up to his master(主人) as he had seen the dog do, but he broke the table and all the dishes.

He then tried to lick(舔) his master(主人) and jumped on his back.

The farm workers quickly came back and beat the donkey(驴) out of the house.

The donkey(驴) thought to himself, “It’s all my fault(错误)! Why couldn’t I just be happy with my life?”

MORAL: Be satisfied with what you have.

The Dolphins(海豚), the Whales(鲸), and the Fish

Some dolphins(海豚) argued with some whales(鲸), and before long they began fighting with each other.

The battle was very fierce(激烈的), and lasted for some time without any sign of coming to an end.

Then a small fish thought that he could stop it.

He tried to persuade(说服) them to give up(放弃) fighting and make friends.

However, one of the dolphins(海豚) said to him, “We would rather go on fighting until we’re all killed than listen to a small fish like you!”

MORAL: If you’re not important, no-one will listen to you, even if you are right.

The Dog, the Rooster(公鸡), and the Fox(狐狸)

A dog and a rooster(公鸡) became great friends, and agreed to travel together.

At sunset(日落), the rooster(公鸡) flew up into a tree to sleep, while the dog lay down in a hole in the tree.

The next morning, the rooster(公鸡) woke up(醒来), and as usual, started to crow(打鸣).

A fox(狐狸) heard this, and wishing to make breakfast of him, came and stood under the tree and told him to come down.

“I would like,” he said, “to make friends with someone who has such a beautiful voice.”

The rooster(公鸡) replied, “Would you just wake up(唤醒) my friends who is sleeping at the bottom of the tree? He’ll open the door and let you in.”

The fox(狐狸) knocked on the tree, and the dog came out and tore him apart(扯开).

MORAL: He who lays traps(圈套) for others is often caught by them himself.

The Dog in the Hay(干草堆)

A barking(狂吠的) dog was lying on the hay(干草堆) that the farmer had put down for the cows.

The cows could not eat the hay(干草堆) because they were scared(害怕) of the doy.

“What a selfish(自私的) dog!” said one of them. “He can’t eat the hay(干草堆) himself, but he won’t allow us to eat it either.”

MORAL: We should not prevent(阻止) others from enjoying what we can’t enjoy ourselves.

The Dog and the Shadow(影子)

A dog was crossing a river bridge with some meat in his mouth.

Suddenly, he saw his own shadow(影子) in the water, and thought it was another dog with a bigger piece of meat.

He dropped his piece of meat and attacked the other dog, to try and get the bigger piece from him.

So he lost his piece of meat, which dropped into the river and floated away(漂走).

MORAL: It is not wise to be too greedy(贪婪的).